Government Bid Bond Form 24 | Format Of Bid Bond
 
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Chemical Bonding Test Review

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Chemical Bonds
mutual electrical attraction between valence electrons and nucleii of different atoms
Why do Atoms Bond?
to lower their potential energy and become more stable
lower potential energy= more stable
Types of Bonds
ionic, covalent (molecular), polar covalent, nonpolar covalent,network covalent, metallic
What Two Groups Can Covalent Bonds be Divided Into?
polar and nonpolar
Ionic Bonds Definition
an electrostatic force of attraction between cations (positive) and anions (negative)..... a metal atom bonds with a nonmetal atom
Ionic Bonds Valence Electrons
the valence electrons are transferred from metal to nonmetal. metal atoms become positive and nonmetal atoms become negative. therefore they attract
Ionic Compound
compound formed from and ionic bond between positive and negative ions
Crystal Lattice
3D crystal structure of positive and negative ions
Properties of Ionic Solids
hard, crystalline solids at room temp. high melting + boiling points. water soluble. good conductors as liquids. poor conductors as solids. hard crystals but can fracture.
Ionic Formula Unit
simplest combining ratio of ions in a compound, doesn't exist independently
Lattice Energy
energy released when gaseous ions form anoinic (negative ion) compounds
Covalent Bond
a nonmetal atom bonds with another nonmetal atom. because nonmetals have high electronegativities they must share their valence electrons with each other
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
if they have the same electronegativity value, then they'll share electrons equally
Polar Covalent Bond
if one atom is more electronegative than the other, then they'll share electrons unequally
Bond Length
average distance between two bonds or bonded atoms
Molecule
a neutral compound consisting of nonmetals convalently bonded. they can exist independently
Single Bond
2 electrons being shared. weakest/longest. lowest energy
Double Bond
4 electrons being shared. middle strength/length/energy
Triple Bond
6 electrons being shared. strongest/shortest. highest energy
Diatomic Molecules
molecules of 2 identical nonmetal atoms covalently bonded together. 7 only exist (HOFBrINKCl)
Polyatomic Ion
group of covalently bonded atoms with an overall charge
Bond Polarity
the polarity of a bond is determined by comparing the electronegativity differnece
Bond Polarity Scale
3.3 to 1.7 is ionic. 1.7 to 0.3 is polar covalent. 0.3 to 0 is nonpolar covalent
Octet Rule
atoms will gain, share, or lose electrons in order to have eight valence electrons.... exceptions hydrogen (2), beryllium (4), and boron (6)
Properties of Molecular Substances
solids at room temp. low melting and boiling points. poor conductors.polar molecules are water soluble. nonpolare molecules are insoluble in water
Coordinate Covalent Bonds
bond created when one atom donates both electrons to be shared. 2 structures w/ coordinate covalent bonds are ammonium and hydrogen ion
Network Covalent Bonds
sharing of electrons in exstensive 3D macromolecule. nonmetal atoms bond w/each other by sharing electons. bonds exist in diamonds, sand, graphite
Properties of Network Covalent Solids
hard crytalline solids. high melting and boiling points. insoluble in water. poor conductors (insulators)
Metallic Bonding
the chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surronding sea of electrons (formed by delocalized electrons)
Delocalized Electrons
electons that do not belong to any one atom but move freely about the metal's network of empty atomic orbitals
Properties of Metallic Solids
good conductors. malleable and ductile. insoluble in water. high melting and boiling points
Molecular Geometry
shape of the molecule
Molecular Polarity
the uneven or even distribution of molecular charge. depends on bond polarity and molecular shape. infulences intermolecular forces
VSPER Theory
(valence shell pair repulsion) electron clouds spread as far apart as possible to minimize repulsive forces
Basic Molecular Geometry
linear, ent, trigonal planar, trigonal pyramidal, and tetrohedal.
Hybridization
combining two or more orbitals of similar energy into new orbitals of equal energy
Polarity of Molecules
nonpolar molecules are symmetrical polar molecules are asymmetrical . polar molecules are called dipoles.
Bond Angles
linear (180). bent (104.5). trigonal planar (120). trigonal pyramidal (107.5). tetrohedal (109.5)
Intermolecular Forces
weak forces of attraction between molecules (van der waals forces). type of force based on polarity
Dipole-Dipole Forces
exist between polar molecules. higher mp and bp. substances exist mostly as liquids or solids. ex) HCl
Dipole-Induced Dipole
(polar-nonpolar) temporary shift in electrons of nonpolar molecule due to prescence of dipole. ex) I₂
Hydrogen Bonding
special dipole-dipole force occuring when hydrogen of one molecule attracts to NOF of another molecule. high mp and bp
London Dispersion Force
(nonpolar-nonpolar) instantaneous dipole due to shift in electron. strength increases w/ increase in number of electons. low bp and mp most are gases. ex) HOFBrINKCl and noble gases