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72 terms

Chemistry bonding test

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bonds
connections to each other
stability
atoms form bonds to gain _____________
electron structure
when atoms combine, they tend to achieve the ____________ ____________ of the noble gases
8
all noble gases have ________ electrons. except helium
collide and overlap their half-filled orbitals
before atoms join together, they must ____________
chemical bond
a link between atoms that results from the mutual attraction of their nuclei for electrons
half-filled electron clouds merge
when an atom's half-filled orbitals overlap it is the same as when __________________________
ionic bond
the chemical bond resulting from electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions (Charges)
covalent bond
chemical bond resulting from the sharing of electrons between two atoms
metallic bond
a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between positive ions and surrounding mobile electrons
electronegativity
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
fluorine
the element with the highest electronegativity value
4.0
fluorine's electronegativity value:
polarity
electronegativity affects ____________.
polar
bonds that have an uneven distribution of charge
nonpolar-covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonding atoms, with a resulting balanced distribution of electrical charge
polar-covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the united atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons
molecular compounds
atoms combine covalently to form _________ __________
ionic compounds
atoms combine ionically to form __________ __________
0.3 or less
electronegativity difference for nonpolar covalent bonds:
between 0.4 and 1.6
electronegativity difference for polar covalent bonds:
1.7 or greater
electronegativity difference for ionic bonds
ionic compound
a compound composed of positive and negative ions combined so that the total positive charge of the cations equals the total negative charge of the anions
electrostatic forces
__________ _________ attract the oppositely charged ions
monatomic ion
an ion composed of only one ion
polyatomic ion
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
formula unit
the simplest unit indicated by the formula of any ionic compound; simplest whole-number ratio of the ions in an ionic compound
crystalline
most ions are ___________ solids at room temp
repeating
crystalline solids have an orderly, ___________ pattern
lattice
crystalline solids form a crystal _________
shapes
several types of crystalline _______ can exist
macroscopic
the repeating pattern at the atomic level is also observed at the _________ level at which we live for crystalline shapes
ionic bond; covalent bond
an individual __________ _________ is usually weaker that an individual __________ __________
surround
an ion is bonded to several other ions that ________ it
ionic compounds; covalent bonds
overall, the sum of the weaker bonds in the structure of the crystal lattice gives ____________ ___________ great strength compared to ____________ ___________ in a molecule
melting points, boiling points, are harder than molecular compounds
in general, ionic compounds have higher __________ _________, ___________ __________, _________ _______ _________ ___________ ___________
ionic compounds
____________ ____________ can conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water
electrolytes
ions that can carry electric charge
covalent compounds
__________ ___________ do not form electrolytes when dissolved in water, and, therefore, do not conduct electricity
strengths
lattice energy is used to compare the _________ of ionic bonds
lattice energy
the energy released when an ionic crystalline compound is formed
higher; stronger
the __________ the lattice energy, the ___________ the ionic bond
crystal lattice
some covalent compounds form a(n) ____________ _________ and are among the strongest substances known
diamond and quartz
2 examples of covalent network crystals:
metallic bond
a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between positive ions and mobile electrons
electron sea
mobile electrons are also called the _________ ________
stronger
the more electrons an atom donates to the electron sea, the _________ the metallic bond
crystal lattice
the atoms in metals are arranged in an orderly pattern that forms a(n) ___________ ___________
malleable and ductile
metals are ____________ and _____________
malleable
being able to be shaped with a hammer
ductile
being able to be drawn into wire through a small hole
alloys
mixtures of metallic elements
superior
the properties of the alloy are often ___________ to those of the pure elements
brass, bronze, steel
3 important alloys:
iron
steel is mainly ___________ but has traces of other elements mixed with it to give it different characteristics
octet rule
states that chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining or losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its valence level
lewis structure
formula in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between 2 atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
unshared pair
also called a lone pair- is a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding, but instead belongs exclusively to one another
hydrogen
exception to the octet rule:
shorter, stronger
the ________ the bond, the _______ the bond
central atom
atom in the middle:
octahedral
6 atoms put around central atom
trigonal bipyramidal
5 atoms put around the central atom
dipole
equal, but opposite charges separated by a short distance
C-H
what bond do you ignore when configuring dipoles?
offset
nonpolar molecules do what?
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction between different molecules
dipole-dipole
intermolecular force between polar molecules
induced dipole
intermolecular force between a polar molecule and a non polar molecule
forces
in an induced dipole, a polar molecule ________ a nonpolar molecule to become polar
london dispersion forces
weak focus of attraction caused by the shifting of electrons; occurs in all atoms and molecules
van der waals
london dispersion forces -- (________________)