The joining of atoms to form a new substance - the properties are different because they formed a new substance.
What is a Chemical Bond?
The force of attraction that holds two atoms together.
What are Valence Electrons?
Electrons in the outermost energy level.
Why do atoms bond?
They bond to have a full outermost energy level - atoms like to be happy when there is a complete set.
How do atoms bond?
Atoms bond by gaining, losing, and sharing electrons. When atoms bond, they interact through their valence electrons.
Name 3 types of bonds:
Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic
What does an Ionic bond consist of?
Metal and Non-Metal
What does a Covalent bond consist of?
2 or more Non-Metal
What does a Metallic bond consist of?
2 or more Metals
Why are Halogens very reactive?
Because they only need one valence electron. (i.e. Chlorine and Sodium)
How is a positive Ion (Cation) formed? Why does it happen?
When the protons outnumber the electrons. This happens because a valence electron is removed.
How is a Negative Ion (Anion) Formed? Why does it happen?
When the electrons outnumber the protons. This happens because an electron is added to the outermost shell.
What is an Ionic Bond?
The force of attraction between oppositely charged Ions.
What is an Ion?
Charged paraticles that form during chemical changes when one or more valence electrons transfer from one atom to another
What occurs in an Ionic Bond?
The number of electrons change while number of protons stay the same. (Electrons are transferred) FYI: The new element converts to an ion due to an Ionic Bond.
When an atom loses electrons... a _______ is formed.
When an atom gains electrons... a _______ is formed.
How come energy is needed when an atom loses an electron?
To overcome the attraction between the electrons and protons in the nucleus.
Since non-metals have many valence electrons, what occurs in the transfer of electrons?
Since it takes a lot of energy to remove an electron, Non-metals would rather gain an electron and give off energy.
How come atoms form negative ions when electrons are gained?
Because electrons have a negative charge.
How come atoms form positive ions when electrons are removed?
Becuase protons have a positive charge.
What is a Crystal lattice?
Ions that make up Ionic compounds are bonded in a repeating 3-d pattern.
What does the Strong force of attraction do to the compound in a Crystal Lattice?
It gives the compound properties such as high melting point, high boiling point. (Also, they tend to be brittle solids and break when hit with a hammer.)
What is a Covalent Bond?
A Covalent bond is the force of attraction between the nuclei of atom and the electrons shared by the atom.
How is an Ionic Bond different than a Convalent Bond?
Rather than transferring Electrons, the elements share. Also, Covalent Bonds organize into molecules.
What is a Molecule?
Neutral Group of atoms held together by a Convalent bond. Also, they are atoms of 2 or more elements.
What is a Diatomic Molecule?
The simplest of all molecules. Also made up of 2 atoms that share electrons and fill up outer-most shell.
Name the Fab 7:
Hydrogen, Fluorine, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine. (Arsenic is rare)
What are Carbon Atoms?
They are the basis of many complex molecules. Each Carbon atom needs to have 4 covalent bonds to have 8 valence electrons.
What is a Metallic Bond?
The force of Attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons in a metal.
What are the electrons doing in a Metallic Bond?
The electrons are swimming.
Explain the Scientific understanding of a Metallic Bond.
The metal atoms get so close to one another that their outermost energy levels overlap, allowing the electrons to swim back and forth. Ions are held together because metallic bonds extend through the metal in all directions.
Repulsion between positive charged metal ions increase as the ions...
are pushed closer together and the moving electrons maintain the bond no matter the shape.
When a metal and nonmetal react together...
The same number of electrons that are lost are gained, creating a compound to become neutral due to the charges canceling eachother out.
What is an example of Electrostatic Attraction?
When the Opposite charges stick together
Since I can't put this on the flashcard.. you must know how to
Draw atoms/ions and calculate the charge, charges of each group, and draw a covalent, and ionic bond, Electron Dot Diagram, and Metallic Bond.